What is Glucose? Glucose is one of the most important carbohydrate used as a source of energy for animals and plants. Glucose is one of the main results for photosynthesis and respiration early. Natural form (D-glucose) is also called dextrose, especially in the food industry.

Glucose is an aldehyde (contains a group of -CHO). Five carbons and one oxygen’s to form a ring called a "ring piranosa". In this ring, each carbon bonded to the hydroxyl side groups and hydrogen atoms except the fifth, which tied the sixth carbon atom outside the ring, forming a group CH2OH. This ring structure is in equilibrium with a more reactive form.

Glucose is a source of energy that are ubiquitous in biology. We can guess the reasons why glucose, and not another monosaccharide such as fructose, is so widely used. Glucose can be formed from formaldehyde in abiotic conditions, so it will be easily available to primitive biochemical systems.

It is more important for the organism is a tendency for glucose levels, compared to other hexode sugars, which are not easy to react non specifically with a protein amino group. This reaction (glycosylation) reduces or even damages the function of many enzymes. The low rate of glycosylation is due to glucose which is mostly located in the less reactive cyclic isomer.

However, acute complications like a diabetes, blindness, kidney failure, and peripheral nerve damage, possibly caused by glycosylation of proteins.

Source from: Wikipedia

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